Sinuses are air filled spaces present in the head region. There are four such spaces frontal, ethmoid, maxillary and sphenoid sinuses. In normal individuals these are lined by epithelium and filled with air. When these are infected, they may present either as thickened epithelium or completely blocked with fluid. 


The conditions that may be responsible for sinusitis are: Common cold or any upper respiratory tract infections. Any allergies or the smoke and the environment are the least known causes. Structural deformities like deviated nasal septum or nasal polyps. Depleted immune systems especially those on immunosuppressant drugs. In children most common cause is drinking in lying down position or due to illnesses from other kids.


Acute sinusitis is the one with duration less than 12weeks presents with, runny nose, loss of smell, congestion, facial pain, bad breath and sometimes even dental pain. While the presentation of chronic sinusitis rather quiet, runny nose, nasal discharge, headache, fever and nasal blockade.


The treatment usually consists of antibiotics for the infection, sometimes steroids are also prescribed. In case of allergies anti-histaminic drugs are given. For simple sinus blockade, decongestants suffice. Along with these, we need to keep away from know allergens, warm inhalations and warm compresses for easing pain. Maintaining good hygiene during cold and flu seasons care possibly reduce the number of attacks. If neglected the infection may creep up causing meningitis, brain abscess and even invade the bone.

--Koya Satyasri

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